IV League specializes in Alpha Lipoic Acid IV Therapy.
Alpha Lipoic acid (ALA), also known as thioptic acid, is a Sulphur-containing fatty acid found inside every cell of the body, synthesized from the amino acid cysteine.
Alpha Lipoic acid (ALA) is an important and multifunctional antioxidant that destroys many of the free radicals that are harmful to the human body. It is being often described as “universal”, “ideal”, “broad spectrum” and “metabolic” antioxidant.
It plays an essential role in health and may very well join the ranks of vitamins C and E as part of first-line of defense against free radicals. It also protects membranes by interacting with vitamin C and glutathione, which may in turn recycle vitamin E.
History of Alpha Lipoic Acid
Lipoic acid was first discovered in 1951 from bovine liver extracts, by American biochemists L.J. Reed and I.C. Gunsalus. Until the 1980s it was considered a vitamin, and only later as an antioxidant. It was then discovered that it can be synthesized in the human body, at the mitochondrial level, starting from actane acid and L-cysteine
Its use in clinical practice dates back to the 1970s when Burt Berkson injected ALA in patients with fulminant hepatitis due to mushroom poisoning and about two weeks after treatment, liver function was back to normal. In the same period, he used ALA in animal models of diabetes and from the observations that emerged from these experimental studies it was deduced that ALA could be useful in diabetic neuropathy as it significantly improved painful symptoms.
ALA is now emphasized as a potential therapeutic agent for many chronic diseases with great epidemiological as well as economic and social impact such as diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications, hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cognitive dysfunction. Currently the use of ALA as a supplement is growing in many aspects of medical and nutritional management of patients.
What Are the Benefits of Alpha Lipoic Acid IV?
Alpha-Lipoic acid (ALA) has become a common ingredient in multivitamin formulas, anti-aging supplements, and even pet food. It is well-defined as a therapy for preventing diabetic polyneuropathies, and scavenges free radicals, chelates metals, and restores intracellular glutathione levels which otherwise decline with age.
In addition to being a powerful antioxidant and liver purifier, Alpha Lipoic Acid has shown promise in several areas of medicine and dentistry. It has been used to improve liver health, treat diabetes-related nerve damage, glaucoma, hearing disorders, migraine headaches and help regulate blood sugar, prevent diabetic retinopathy, and provide protection against oxidative processes involved in the degenerative diseases. Other important uses are in coronary artery disease, inhibition of HIV replication, prevention of premature ageing and prevention of radiation damage.
It also has major role in management of various oral diseases. Being a broad spectrum antioxidant, it is prescribed to prevent further carcinogenesis in various oral precancerous lesions and conditions. It can be used for treatment of various oral neuropathic conditions like primary burning mouth syndrome, autoimmune disorders, psoriasis.
Molecular Structure of Alpha Lipoic Acid
From a structural point of view, it is a small molecule, formed by a chain of eight carbon atoms, two of oxygen in the carboxylic group and two of sulfur located in the terminal part.
ALA exists in nature as an oxidized form (cyclic disulfide) and as a reduced form (dihydrolipoic acid- DHLA); the reduced form presents the two sulfur atoms in free thiol form (-SH), while the oxidized form presents a disulfide bridge (-S-S) which generates a dithiolane ring. Its particular structure allows the ALA to intervene in oxidation-reduction reactions and to act as a biological carrier of electrons or acetyl groups.
ALA is both water and fat soluble, therefore it can be distributed in all parts of the body, has the ability to cross the blood-brain and hematoretinal barrier, exerting its effects also at the ocular, cerebral and nervous system levels.
What Are the Mechanisms of Action of Alpha Lipoic Acid IV?
Antioxidant Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid IV
When we feed, the macromolecules are broken down and consumed through numerous oxidation reactions. These reactions can lead to the formation of free radicals, as the oxygen used in these metabolic processes to produce energy can give rise to the formation of free radicals or “Reactive Oxygen Radicals/Species” (ROS).
These free oxygen radicals are highly reactive and unstable molecules; they have an unseated electron in their outfielder orbital that is very reactive. They tend to subtract from the molecules with which they come in contact with to complete their external orbital and became stable.
Free radicals are responsible for destructive action against cells or certain cellular components. It is now known that free radicals are involved in the process of tissue ageing and in the development of numerous chronic and degenerative diseases
Our body defend itself from the presence of free radicals by synthesizing substances called antioxidants. Antioxidants are chemicals (molecules, ions or radicals) or physical agents that slow down or prevent the oxidation of other substances, as they provide free radicals with the electrons they lack. Antioxidants can be divided into endogenous and exogenous depending on whether the body is able to synthesize them or if they must be introduced with food.
Molecules that react with free radicals become unstable and search for an electron, generating radicals that can propagate the chain reaction generated by the initiator radical. The radical, once formed, are able to alter some metabolic activities and some cellular structures. The uncontrolled production of free radicals is a factor that contributes to the onset of many disorders.
ALA is a unique antioxidant in that its antioxidant activity extends to both its oxidized form and the reduced form. The antioxidant activity of Lipoic acid relates to scavenging hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorous acid and singlet oxygen along with transition metal chelation, whereas DHLA can, in addition, regenerate endogenous antioxidants such vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione, and also repair oxidative damage. Most of the therapeutic effects of lipoic acid are attributable to its antioxidant properties. The ranking of an antioxidant is dependent upon its redox potential, i.e. its ability to be oxidized and reduced. The redox potential of lipoic acid is higher than that of vitamin C or glutathione, thus making it a very potent antioxidant. It is called a “broad spectrum” antioxidant because of its activity in both the aqueous and lipid phases. ALA also regenerates glutathione (whose lower values is associated with increased risk of cancer), which is very difficult to absorb from supplements or food.
Alpha-Lipoic acid also serves as a coenzyme (i.e. facilitating the action of enzymes) in several metabolic pathways. It is a coenzyme for a group of enzymes (i.e. biological catalysts) responsible for the eventual conversion of fats, carbohydrates and proteins in to biological energy (i.e. adenosine triphosphate or ATP). This process takes place in a special cellular compartment called the mitochondria.
Recent studies shed new light on Lipoic acid’s capacity to regulate metabolism. Lipoic acid given to humans in oral doses of 300-600 mg/day has been documented to increase the serum level of lipoic acid in the blood to 25-50 micromoles/liter (5mg/liter of blood). It turns out that doses in this range can promote the activation of an important regulator of energy metabolism (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) and in effect accelerate the removal of a carbohydrate- derived food metabolite, pyruvate, by converting it to energy. The net effect of this activity is to accelerate the removal from the serum of carbohydrate precursors to pyruvate.
Antidiabetic Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid
According to several studies, it has been shown that ALA can contribute to the control of diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by inadequate insulin secretion and insulin resistance. Hyperglycemia can increase the production of free radicals and inflammatory cytokines. ALA improves the effectiveness of insulin and the transport of glucose into the cells and reduces insulin resistance.
Several studies have shown that the use of ALA has beneficial effects thanks to its ability to increase both the absorption of sugar in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant muscle tissues and to stimulate the glucose uptake by glucose transporters to the plasma membrane.
Alpha Lipoic Acid IV Treating Medical Conditions
DIABETES MELLITUS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS
ALA has been used to control blood sugar and in prevention and treatment of diabetic complications including retinopathy, neuropathy and renal diseases. It has potential preventive or ameliorative effects in both type I and type II diabetes.
ALA has been shown to have protective effects against hypercholesterolemia and the accumulation of hepatic fat in conditions of overeating and in case of genetic predisposition.
It is now generally accepted that oxidized LDL (low density lipoproteins) is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lipoic acid has been shown to protect LDL exposed to oxidative stress. It protects against oxidative damage of coronary arterial wall. It also speeds recovery following myocardial infarction and stroke.
The endothelium lines the vasculature throughout the body and is considered to function passively as a barrier and possesses a diverse assortment of physiological functions like regulation of vascular tone and blood fluidity, the modulation of monocyte adhesion, and lipid peroxidation. As ALA increases glutathione in tissue and regenerates endogenous levels of vitamins C and E, it acts as a prime candidate to improve endothelial dysfunction.
ALA is used in mushroom poisoning and alcoholic liver disease due to its metabolic role.
ALA helps in slowing progression of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. It has shown to improve memory in older individuals. It has also shown its effect on Parkinson’s disease, stroke and spinal cord injuries.
Free radicals are hypothesized to play a role in neuropathy and on this basis, lipoic acid has been tried as a treatment. There is well known evidence for lipoic acid in treatment of peripheral and autonomic neuropathy especially in diabetes.
HIV AND OTHER INFECTIONS
Laboratory findings show that lipoic acid is an effective inhibitor of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV-1) replication.
HIV patients are also known to have low tissue levels of the potent antioxidant glutathione. Glutathione plays an important role in our immune system. In one study, it was found that treatment of immune system cells called the T cells with lipoic acid dramatically increased their glutathione levels.
Intravenous Lipoic acid Vs. Oral Supplementation
Antioxidants are present in sufficient quantities in a balanced and complete diet.
There are pathological and non-pathological situations, in which the production of these ROS is such that the antioxidant capacities are insufficient and particular condition is established indicated as oxidative stress.
In these conditions, high levels of ROS can be found, so it is recommended to favor the intake of foods particularly rich in antioxidants and to take other exogenous antioxidant. ALA is available in the form of oral supplementation and intravenous injection.
Intravenous injection: Study shows evidence for IV treatment of daily 600 mg in improving positive neuropathic symptoms and neuropathic deficits.
Oral: The recommended daily dose is 300-600 mg, preferably in combination with other antioxidants (glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, coenzyme Q10, etc.) and with the B vitamins. In order to receive the right quantities to have its beneficial effects, it is recommended to take ALA after meals.
Alpha Lipoic IV Therapy References
- Andreea Rotaru. The Neuroprotective role of alpha thioctic acid and vitamin B complex in diabetic neuropathy – an experimental study. Curr Health Sci J 2020; 46: 150-155. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445648/. Accessed January 20, 2023
- Koh EH, Lee WJ, Lee SA, Kim EH, Cho EH, Jeong E, Kim DW, Kim MS, Park JY, Park KG, Lee HJ. Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on body weight in obese subjects. Am J Med 2011; 124: 85.e1-8. https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(10)00743-6/fulltext. Accessed January 20, 2023
- Solmonson A and DeBerardinis RJ. Lipoic acid metabolism and mitochondrial redox regulation. J Biol chem 2018; 293: 7522-7530. https://www.jbc.org/article/S0021-9258(20)36953-2/fulltext. Accessed January 21, 2023
- Brufani M and Figliola R. (R)-α-lipoic acid oral liquid formulation: pharmacokinetic parameters and therapeutic efficacy. Acta Biomed 2014; 85: 108-115. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25245645/. Accessed January 21, 2023
- Salehi B, Berkay Yılmaz Y, Antika G, Boyunegmez Tumer T, Fawzi Mahomoodally M, Lobine D, Akram M, Riaz M, Capanoglu E, Sharopov F, Martins N. Insight on the Use of α-Lipoic Acid for Therapeutic Purposes. Biomolecules 2019; 9: 356. https://www.jmedicalcasereports.org/uploads/178/9608_pdf.pdf. Accessed January 21, 2023
- Rochette, Luc & Ghibu, Steliana & Muresan, Adriana & Vergely, Catherine. (2015). Alpha-lipoic acid: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential in diabetes. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology. 93. 1-7. 10.1139/cjpp-2014-0353. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282243655_Alpha-lipoic_acid_Molecular_mechanisms_and_therapeutic_potential_in_diabetes. Accessed January 21, 2023
- Srinivasa, Raju & Sumit, Goel & Taneja, Neeraj. (2011). Alpha Lipoic Acid: Its Role in Health and Diseases. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/346036239_Alpha_Lipoic_Acid_Its_Role_in_Health_and_Diseases. Accessed January 21, 2023
- Hiep Nguyen; Vikas Gupta. (2022). Alpha-Lipoic Acid. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK564301/#_NBK564301_pubdet_