This page covers Tyrosine IV Therapy including its many benefits. IV League provides mobile Tyrosine IV Therapy.
In the diet, tyrosine can be eaten in dairy products, meats, fish, eggs, nuts, beans, oats, and wheat. The body uses tyrosine to make chemical messengers that are involved in conditions affecting the brain, such as mental alertness.
People most commonly use tyrosine in protein supplements for an inherited disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU).
It is also used for alcohol use disorder, cocaine dependence, and memory and thinking skills, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TyrH), the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters, is one of three members of the aromatic amino acid hydroxylase enzyme family. The enzyme is found in the brain and adrenal gland where it catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA.
The other members of the family are phenylalanine hydroxylase, which catabolizes excess phenylalanine to tyrosine, and tryptophan hydroxylase, which catalyzes the rate limiting step in the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
All three enzymes have a mononuclear non-heme iron, coordinated by the common His2-Glu facial triad motif and use a tetrahydropterin to activate dioxygen for hydroxylation of the aromatic side chains of their corresponding amino acid substrates.
Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that can transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a specific protein tyrosine, serine or threonine residue within a cell, operating as a switch that can turn ‘on’ and ‘off’ causing different physiological alterations in the body.
The important amino acid phenylalanine is hydroxylated in the process that generates tyrosine in the body’s cells as discussed above. This connection is quite comparable to the one that exists between cysteine and methionine.
The creation of tyrosine requires around half of the phenylalanine that is necessary; however, if the diet contains a lot of tyrosine on its own, the requirements for phenylalanine are decreased by approximately half.
The precursor role that L-tyrosine plays in the manufacture of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine can provide an explanation for the process by which L-antidepressant tyrosine’s effect is triggered. It is believed that antidepressant effects are related to increased levels of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.
Benefits of Tyrosine IV Therapy
The ability of L-tyrosine to replace catecholamine concentrations in the brain, which can get depleted under stressful conditions, is the primary advantage of taking this amino acid. Stress can cause these levels to drop.
L-tyrosine has been shown in a number of trials to be useful in preventing a deterioration in cognitive function that can occur under settings that are both stressful and cognitively demanding.
L-tyrosine supplementation has indeed been proven to ameliorate impaired memory in situations of acute stress, despite the fact that it has not been proven to improve memory while the individual is at rest. One human trial lasted for two weeks and used a dose of 2500 milligrams (mg), which was administered three times a day for the duration of the trial.
Another trial used single doses of up to 150 milligrams (mg) per kilogram of body weight (approximately 10,000 mg for a person weighing 68 kilograms (kg) or 150 pounds (lb.). Both trials found that L-tyrosine was safe and well-tolerated in moderate amounts.
Tyrosine also aids in inducing the production of several vital substances like:
- Dopamine: Your brain’s pleasure and reward centers are controlled by dopamine. Memory and motor abilities both benefit greatly from the presence of this essential brain chemical.
- Thyroid hormones: The thyroid gland is responsible for the production of thyroid hormones, which are principally responsible for controlling metabolism.
- Adrenaline and noradrenaline: The “fight or flight” response that people have in response to stressful conditions is caused by these hormones. They get the body ready to “fight” or “flee” from a perceived threat or danger in the environment.
- Melanin: This pigment is responsible for the coloration of your skin, hair, and eyes. Persons with dark skin have a higher concentration of the pigment melanin in their skin compared to people with lighter skin.
Other benefits of IV Tyrosine include:
A number of athletes feel that taking tyrosine supplements improves their overall performance. However, there is no evidence to support either the veracity or the safety of this claim.
Only a small number of clinical research are undertaken, thus the data that have been collected are inconclusive regarding the effects of taking supplemental tyrosine while exercising. But, investigations that were carried out in the 1980s have reported more positive findings. When given to eight cyclists who were working out in the heat, tyrosine at a dose of 150 mg/kg appeared to improve their endurance. Notwithstanding, when given to another group of cyclists, a similar experiment resulted in greater plasma tyrosine levels and not performance improvements; tyrosine, however, may have transformed their perception of how quickly they were tiring.
Inhibition of Fear
Administration of a single dose of L-tyrosine 2 g one hour prior to fear conditioning effectively suppressed the magnitude of fear response when compared to placebo (P = 0.006) based upon skin conductance responses in a study involving university students (N = 46). The study was double-blind, randomized, and controlled with a placebo. The results of a questionnaire that used a visual analogue scale (VAS) before and after the drug was administered, but before fear conditioning, revealed that the medicine had no influence on mood scores. These findings provide evidence that the catecholamine precursor L-tyrosine is able to increase levels of dopamine and norepinephrine and decrease levels of fear expression without having an influence on measurements of mood or alertness.
It has also been suggested that tyrosine can help with depression. It is believed that depression results from an imbalance of neurotransmitters in the brain. Antidepressants are a popular medication provided to patients in order to assist in realigning and balancing their mood. It has been hypothesized that tyrosine can work as an antidepressant due to its ability to stimulate the creation of neurotransmitters. However, preliminary study does not lend credence to this assertion.
One trial involved the administration of either 100 mg/kg of tyrosine, 2.5 mg/kg of a popular antidepressant, or a placebo once daily for a period of four weeks to sixty-five patients diagnosed with depression. It was discovered that tyrosine does not have any antidepressant effects. Depression is an illness that has a lot of different facets to it. It is possible that this is the reason why a dietary supplement such as tyrosine is unsuccessful at treating the symptoms of the condition. However, people who are sad and have lower levels of dopamine, adrenaline, or noradrenaline may be benefited by taking tyrosine supplements.
In reality of course, one study conducted on people suffering from depression due to a lack of dopamine found that tyrosine was able to produce clinically significant advantages. Low levels of energy and an absence of motivation are two of the hallmarks of dopamine-dependent depression. The present evidence does not favor the use of tyrosine supplements as a treatment for depression symptoms. This conclusion will remain valid until further study is conducted.
Tyrosine and Emotionalism
It is considered that an imbalance of dopamine in the brain has a negative effect on mood. Acute tyrosine depletion experiments have induced mood lowering in healthy women with moderate seasonal changes to behavior and it is assumed that an inequality of dopamine in the brain has caused mood lowering. The effects of the amino acids tyrosine and 5-hydroxytryptophan on serotonin and dopamine have been the subject of a significant amount of research. In areas of the brain that are responsible for emotional connection and mood, dopamine is released. A study that was conducted in 2015 and published in The Journal of Neuroscience indicated that “increasing dopamine boosted happiness resulting from some rewards.” When dopamine levels are low, it can be difficult to feel motivated, rewarded, and pleasured. For some people, it can feel like they are trying to run a marathon with a broken leg.
Improved Sleeping Patterns
It has been demonstrated that taking a tyrosine supplement can be beneficial for individuals who do not get enough sleep. People who had only gotten four hours of sleep the previous night were able to maintain their alertness with a single dose of it for three hours more than they normally would have.
Your sexual libido is also significantly influenced by your level of motivation. Dopamine is released in response to erotic cues, which drives us to seek pleasure by engaging in sexual activity. Adults who gazed at pornographic photographs for six minutes while in a subconscious state had a rush of dopamine release and activity in reward-related brain areas, as revealed by MRI scans. This activity occurred in regions of the brain associated with pleasure. Tyrosine is effective in increasing sexual sensations through rising the levels of dopamine.
History of Tyrosine IV
J. von Liebig, a German chemist, made the discovery of L-tyrosine in casein extracted from cheese in the year 1846. In 1906, E. Abderhalden and Y. Teruuchi in Germany extracted it from waste of the silk and published their findings. At Concordia University in Montreal, researchers led by V. J. J. Martin and his colleagues created an enzyme that can convert L-tyrosine into L-DOPA.
This was a subset of a bigger study that aimed to create opiates such as codeine and morphine from yeasts, since yeasts are responsible for the production of L-tyrosine from glucose. The research group produced a biosensor that turns L-DOPA yellow so that its production can be easily tracked and monitored. This was done to assist in the enzyme screening process.
- Discovery of Tyrosine Kinases
In the wake of the finding that V-SRC functions as a protein kinase, several researchers turned their attention to determining whether or not their preferred oncoprotein could also perform the role of a protein kinase.
Tony Hunter and Walter Eckhart had been conducting research on the small, intermediate, and big tumor antigens that are encoded by the murine polyoma virus, which is a tiny DNA tumor virus. 1979 saw the discovery of a protein kinase activity that was shown to co-precipitate with polyoma middle T antigen protein.
This was accomplished with the help of an anti-polyoma viral tumor serum and the immune complex kinase test reported earlier. Phosphorylation of the middle T antigen was seen in this instance.
Hunter hydrolyzed the protein to single amino acids and then separated them by electrophoresis on cellulose plates in order to determine whether or not it was phosphorylated on serine or threonine.
These are the two amino acids that are known to be phosphorylated by the majority of protein kinases found in animal cells. He was taken aback when he discovered a radioactive molecule that did not comigrate with either phosphoserine or phosphothreonine, but rather ran between the two of them.
Phosphotyrosine was the only other amino acid besides tyrosine that was known to contain an accessible hydroxyl group, therefore he reasoned that the newly discovered radioactively phosphorylated molecule must be phosphotyrosine.
In order to verify the validity of this concept, he used chemical synthesis to produce a trace amount of phosphotyrosine.
He then came to the conclusion that the nonradioactive phosphotyrosine standard and the radioactive phosphoamino acid that was found in the middle T-associated protein comigrated in the thin-layer electrophoresis (TLE) used to separate the phosphoamino acids. This was discovered by using ninhydrin staining.
During this time, Hunter’s neighbor at the Salk Institute, Bart Sefton, was conducting research on the RSV’s transformation. Tyrosine was found to be the predominant phosphoamino acid in the antibody that had been used to immunoprecipitate V-SRC, which was a finding that came as a complete surprise.
When we were checking our findings multiple times before publishing them, the TLE method for separating phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine stopped being effective.
It was revealed that the sustained reuse of electrophoresis buffer had led to a rise in acidity from pH 1.9 to 1.7, which allowed for the separation of phosphotyrosine and phosphothreonine in the “old” buffer but did not allow for this separation in the standard buffer.
This observation also illustrated why Collett and Erikson had earlier stated that V-SRC was a protein threonine kinase, when in fact it was a protein tyrosine kinase.
When the experiment was performed “properly” (using new buffer), the “wrong” response (phosphothreonine) was obtained; however, when the experiment was performed “incorrectly” (using old buffer), the “correct” answer was obtained (phosphotyrosine).
The Mechanisms Of Action For Tyrosine IV
Tyrosine kinases (TKs), taken as a whole, phosphorylate particular amino acids found on substrate enzymes. This, in turn, causes an alteration in signal transduction, which in turn leads to alterations in the cellular biology further down the line. The downstream signal transduction that is triggered by TKs has the potential to influence a variety of cellular behaviors, including cell growth, migration, differentiation, apoptosis, and death.
Constitutive activation or inhibition can lead to dysregulated signal cascades, which may result in cancer as well as other diseases. This depends on whether the activation or inhibition is caused by mutations or by other mechanisms.
Therefore, inhibiting these primary signals with TKIs (tyrosine kinases inhibitors) can prevent the abnormal action of mutant or malfunctioning of TKs from taking place.
In spite of the fact that their fundamental amino acid sequences differ, the three-dimensional structures of human kinases are remarkably similar, in particular with regard to the ATP-binding pocket that is situated in the catalytically active area.
In most cases, the beginning amino acid sequence of the flexible activation loop, which regulates access to the activation site and may be written as ASP-Phe-Gly or DFG, is likewise conserved.
Inhibitors of kinases can either be irreversible or reversible in their effects. The irreversible kinase inhibitors typically form a covalent bond with the ATP site, blocking it in the process, which results in inhibition that cannot be reversed.
The reversible kinase inhibitors can be further subdivided into four major subtypes based on the confirmation of the binding pocket as well as the DFG motif. This is done based on the confirmation of the binding pocket.
Various binding modes of TKIs are listed as follows:
- Type I inhibitors
Type I inhibitors are those that bind to the ATP-binding site of active TKs in a manner that is competitive with other inhibitors. When it comes to type I inhibitors, the DFG motif is arranged in such a way that the aspartate residue is pointing in the direction of the kinase’s catalytic site.
- Type II inhibitors
Inactive kinases are the target of type II inhibitors, which bind to the enzymes at the ATP-binding site. In type II inhibitors, the DFG motif is located in a position that projects outward and away from the ATP-binding site. Many types of type II inhibitors are able to take advantage of regions proximal to the ATP-binding site that, in the absence of the DFG motif’s rotation toward the outside, would be inaccessible.
- Type III inhibitors
Inhibitors of type III do not interact with the ATP-binding pocket in the target protein. Allosteric pockets surrounding the ATP-binding region are the only places that type III inhibitors can successfully bind.
- Type IV Inhibitors
Inhibitors of type IV bind to allosteric sites that are a significant distance from the ATP-binding pocket.
- Type V Inhibitors
Inhibitors of the type V class are those that have been proposed as belonging to a subset of kinase inhibitors and which have numerous binding modalities.
Tyrosine IV Treatment of Medical Conditions
How Is Tyrosine IV Used To Treat Cancer?
There is a category of cell-surface growth factor receptors known as receptor tyrosine kinases. These receptors have an intrinsic tyrosine-kinase activity that is modulated by ligands. They are responsible for the regulation of a wide variety of functions in normal cells and play an essential part in the development of cancer.
The epidermal growth factor receptor was the target of the first study to decipher the primary structure of a receptor tyrosine kinase. This study was conducted twenty years ago.
The categorization of both the molecular architecture of receptor tyrosine kinases and the major functions of such proteins and their ligands in tumorigenesis managed to open the door to a new era in molecular oncology and initiated the method for the development of the first target-specific cancer therapeutics.
How Is IV Tyrosine Used To Treat Cold In Adults?
It has been demonstrated that giving older persons L-tyrosine will boost the cutaneous vasoconstrictive response during cold exposure, which will result in a reduction in the amount of heat that is lost.
In addition, it improves both cognitive and psychomotor function in young people, even when they are under the influence of cold stress. In a study that was double-blind, randomized, and controlled with a placebo in order to further investigate the thermoregulatory effects of L-tyrosine while the individuals were being cooled.
There were 18 healthy volunteers in total. There were 9 young folks (mean age: 25 years) and 9 older persons among the participants (mean age: 72 years). A single dosage of tyrosine led to a considerable improvement in older people’ ability to maintain their core temperature and led to a significant reduction in the core temperature drop that occurred during whole-body cooling (P 0.05).
On the other hand, it did not have any impact on the thermoregulatory characteristics of young adults. Although tyrosine was shown to diminish the sensation of cold in young individuals more so than the placebo (P = 0.007), there were no significant changes observed between tyrosine and the placebo in terms of the discomfort or perception of cold in older adults compared to younger adults.
Tyrosine increased the reflex cutaneous vasoconstrictive response in the older individuals (P 0.05), bringing it closer to the reaction seen in the young adults. However, the response did not change in the younger adults.
How Is IV Tyrosine Used To Treat Phenylketonuria?
PKU, also known as phenylketonuria, is an extremely uncommon hereditary disorder that is brought on by a malfunction in the gene, which plays a role in the production of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase. This enzyme is required for the conversion of phenylalanine into tyrosine, which is then employed in the production of neurotransmitters in your body.
Nevertheless, in the absence of this enzyme, the body is unable to break down phenylalanine, which results in an accumulation of the substance. The primary method for treating PKU is to adhere to a particular diet that restricts the consumption of foods and beverages that contain phenylalanine.
However, because tyrosine is produced from phenylalanine, individuals with PKU have an increased risk of developing tyrosine deficiency, which has been linked to a variety of behavioral issues. There is conflicting research regarding whether or not using tyrosine as a dietary supplement is an effective way to alleviate these symptoms.
Researchers examined the effects of tyrosine supplementation in place of or in addition to a phenylalanine-restricted diet on IQ, growth, nutritional status, mortality rates, and quality of life in one of their reviews. The researchers looked at two studies that included 47 participants and discovered that taking tyrosine supplements or a placebo had the same effect on the participants.
A comparison of taking a tyrosine supplement with a placebo for the same amount of time did not show any significant changes in the outcomes that were examined, according to an analysis of three studies that included 56 participants. According to the findings and conclusions of the researchers, it is not possible to provide guidance regarding whether or not tyrosine supplements are useful in the treatment of PKU.
How Is IV Tyrosine Used To Treat Stress?
Everyone at some point or another has felt the effects of stress. Because of this stress, your reasoning, memory, attention, and knowledge may all suffer as a direct result of the decrease in neurotransmitters. For instance, memory was reduced in rodents that had been subjected to cold, which is an environmental stressor. This was because there was a decrease in neurotransmitters.
Nonetheless, when these rodents were administered a supplement containing tyrosine, the reduction in neurotransmitters was reversed, and their memories were brought back to normal. Although there is no guarantee that the findings in rodents will be replicated in humans, investigations on humans have produced comparable findings.
One study involving 22 women found that taking tyrosine significantly enhanced working memory compared to a placebo when the participants were engaged in a mentally taxing task. Concentration and being able to follow directions both rely heavily on one’s capacity for working memory.
In a trial that was quite similar to this one, the same number of individuals (22 total) were provided either a tyrosine supplement or a placebo right before they were given a test that was designed to measure cognitive flexibility. It was shown that taking tyrosine improved cognitive flexibility in comparison to taking a placebo.
The ability to transition between different activities or lines of thought is known as cognitive flexibility. The stronger a person’s cognitive flexibility, the more quickly they can move between different tasks.
Additionally, two reviews came to the conclusion that taking tyrosine as a supplement can reverse risk of cognitive decline and increase cognition in conditions that are intellectually demanding or stressful for a short period of time. There is no evidence to suggest that tyrosine improves human physical performance; nevertheless, there is a possibility that it may improve cognitive function.
In conclusion, there is no evidence from research to suggest that taking tyrosine supplements with a stressor lacking can increase mental function. To put it another way, it will not make your brain more powerful.
How Is IV Tyrosine Used To Treat Anorexia Nervosa?
A comparison was made between the pharmacokinetics and safety of tyrosine loading in two adolescents who had been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and two adolescents who were considered to be healthy controls.
Supplementation with L-tyrosine at a dosage of 2.5 grams twice daily for a period of 12 weeks resulted in Patient 2 experiencing a relatively “weight-restored” percent expected body weight of 96% (actual body mass index [BMI] by 50th Centile BMI on growth charts), while Patient 1’s percent expected body weight remained essentially unchanged at 80%.
There were no adverse effects that were noticed. Single-dose pharmacokinetics revealed a percentage rise in tyrosine levels that varied from 152% to 194% in the 2 healthy controls. Patient 2 saw a change that was comparable to this change (164%), however Patient 1 exhibited a substantially greater tyrosine peak response that was 300% higher.
In general, the highest levels of tyrosine were measured between 2 and 3 hours (132 to 240 mcmol/L), and they returned to levels closer to the initial baseline between 8 and 12 hours (62 to 100 mcmol/L).
Intravenous IV Tyrosine vs. Oral Supplementation
Intravenous: There is an ongoing research on the effects and benefits of injecting tyrosine for treating various symptoms associated with several illnesses in human biengs.
When given to rats with either normotensive or spontaneously hypertensive blood pressure, L-tyrosine has the effect of lowering blood pressure. The effect is at its peak around two hours after the injection. When administered intraperitoneally to spontaneously hypertensive rats, a dose of 50 mg/kg produces a reduction in blood pressure of approximately 12 mm Hg (1 mm Hg = 1.33 x 10(2) pascals); a dose of 200 mg/kg produces the maximum effect, which is a reduction in blood pressure of approximately 40 mm Hg.
An injection of tryptophan (225 mg/kg) also reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats, however the effect is approximately one-half as strong as that of tyrosine given in a comparable dose. Other amino acids that have been studied, including leucine, isoleucine, valine, alanine, and arginine, do not have an effect on blood pressure.
Injection of tyrosine appears to lower blood pressure via a reaction within the central nervous system. However, this effect can be inhibited by co-administering other big neutral amino acids that inhibit tyrosine’s uptake into the brain.
This suggests that the action occurs within the CNS. The concurrent increase in brain levels of methoxyhydroxyphenylethylglycol sulphate that its injection produces suggests that the antihypertensive action of tyrosine is mediated by an acceleration in the release of norepinephrine or epinephrine within the central nervous system. This is suggested by the fact that tyrosine lowers blood pressure.
Oral: Tyrosine is available in tablet or capsule form as a dietary supplement. When taken orally, the vast majority of TKIs are successful. The therapeutic loading and preservation dosages are specific to each medicine, and it is appropriate for each patient to get individualized dosing.
When certain TKIs are administered, there are a number of circumstances that can lead to a reduction in potency as well as the development of acquired resistance.
These factors include whether or not the consumption of food has an effect on bioavailability, the process of drug metabolism and elimination, the function of the liver and kidneys, the existence of other medications that modify the pH of the stomach, drug-drug interactions, and patient demographics.
Molecular Structure of Tyrosine IV
L-Tyrosine is the levorotatory isomer of the aromatic amino acid tyrosine. L-tyrosine is a natural form of tyrosine. It is synthesized in vivo from L-phenylalanine. Its molecular formula is C9H11NO3.